磐石| 西吉| 新野| 陕县| 会同| 岳阳县| 香港| 海兴| 唐县| 淄博| 沙圪堵| 大姚| 惠农| 洪湖| 偃师| 长岭| 布拖| 阿图什| 东平| 郑州| 兴义| 勐海| 金湖| 德江| 微山| 泗水| 长岛| 临川| 息烽| 繁峙| 内丘| 宿州| 班玛| 怀来| 泸定| 南海| 太仆寺旗| 东营| 郁南| 扎兰屯| 海盐| 冷水江| 文昌| 米脂| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 璧山| 田阳| 番禺| 成武| 太谷| 堆龙德庆| 左贡| 颍上| 龙泉驿| 洪洞| 乾县| 万源| 达孜| 临汾| 习水| 北仑| 张北| 团风| 山西| 呼和浩特| 渠县| 洪洞| 肥乡| 沂源| 屏东| 金华| 曹县| 师宗| 衡东| 新宁| 合川| 桐梓| 多伦| 任丘| 伊宁市| 祁东| 温江| 营口| 费县| 连城| 民丰| 江津| 电白| 阿荣旗| 巴塘| 天全| 明光| 赣州| 兴义| 三明| 涿州| 昌宁| 马边| 澄海| 戚墅堰| 桂东| 新晃| 来宾| 隰县| 古田| 清流| 威海| 宜丰| 澳门| 德清| 句容| 临朐| 金塔| 定日| 苍梧| 印江| 吴堡| 宁化| 红原| 白云矿| 宜君| 溧水| 永顺| 金溪| 台南市| 灌云| 双柏| 峰峰矿| 台中市| 峰峰矿| 绍兴县| 岳普湖| 化德| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 封开| 古县| 和布克塞尔| 邵东| 三穗| 青田| 科尔沁右翼中旗| 延长| 临汾| 广饶| 宜宾县| 奈曼旗| 东兰| 上蔡| 苍梧| 泸州| 沾益| 晋城| 马山| 苏尼特左旗| 开封市| 祁阳| 寿县| 望谟| 同心| 永吉| 天峨| 洛南| 霍林郭勒| 平邑| 广昌| 曾母暗沙| 崇礼| 万载| 华山| 徐水| 惠阳| 蒙城| 中卫| 林芝县| 伊宁县| 林芝镇| 通城| 固安| 南沙岛| 包头| 资中| 建平| 海宁| 龙山| 连平| 怀宁| 岑巩| 岳普湖| 上高| 大方| 乌拉特中旗| 仪陇| 浪卡子| 漳平| 珙县| 湘潭县| 理塘| 襄阳| 城口| 法库| 浏阳| 四方台| 苍梧| 长丰| 长春| 峨眉山| 吉林| 岗巴| 巴彦| 沂水| 偏关| 桂东| 巴马| 铜陵县| 沈阳| 红星| 姚安| 峨山| 唐河| 丰润| 荆州| 五通桥| 呼玛| 栾川| 山东| 双城| 曲水| 兴义| 天全| 突泉| 西青| 太康| 深泽| 梅县| 福安| 彰武| 普定| 大方| 秦安| 赣榆| 榕江| 德州| 宁津| 余干| 柯坪| 巍山| 府谷| 开县| 高雄县| 武鸣| 上饶县| 云林| 牙克石| 江夏| 湟中| 江口| 浮山| 桦南| 平邑| 泰兴| 遂平| 惠州| 横山|

·专访中国公厕品牌专家宿青平 “请给孩子们修厕所!

2019-07-23 21:30 来源:39健康网

  ·专访中国公厕品牌专家宿青平 “请给孩子们修厕所!

  PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornlastyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsgiantpandasbornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplayonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)Arobotpatrolsthemediacenterofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitonThursday.(Photo:LiHao/GT)WiththeapproachoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,volunteersprovideassistanceforin,“66”,securityrobot“Haihai”anddeliveryrobot“DianXiaoer.”Securityrobot“Haihai”cancarryout24-hourautonhemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,EastChinasShandongProvince,onJune7,2018.(Photo:LiHao/GT)Volunteersworkatthemediacenterreceptiondeskofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,EastChinasShandongProvince,onJune7,2018.(Photo:LiHao/GT)Volunteersstandatattentioninthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,EastChinasShandongProvince,onJune7,2018.(Photo:LiHao/GT)JournalistsprepareinthemediacenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdao,EastChinasShandongProvince,onJune7,2018.(Photo:LiHao/GT)

AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersareseenneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)PassengersareseenatSentosaStationonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AtramrunsonSentosaIsland,AsiasleadingleisuredestinationandSingaporespremierislandgetaway,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewfromthetramonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)TouristsareseenonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewofsceneryneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AshuttlebusonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)WorkerserectafenceneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)WorkerserectafenceneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersareseenneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)TeachersencourageexamineesatanexamvenueinGuiyang,capitalofsouthwestChinasGuizhouProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/TaoLiang)ExamineeswaittoenteranexamvenueatLhasaMiddleSchoolinLhasa,capitalofsouthwestChinasTibetAutonomousRegion,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LiuDongjun)AteacherdistributesIDcardsandstationerytoexamineesatanexamvenueinChengdu,capitalofsouthwestChinasSichuanProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/JiangHongjing),capitalofeastChinasAnhuiProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ZhangDuan)AstaffmemberchecksthecredentialsofexamineesatanexamvenueinBeijing,capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LuoXiaoguang)AnexamineeclapshandswithherteacherbeforeenteringanexamvenueinXian,capitalofnorthwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ZhangBowen)ExamineesenteranexamvenueatHainanMiddleSchoolinHaikou,capitalofsouthChinasHainanProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/GuoCheng)AstudentencouragesexamineesatanexamvenueinBeijing,capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan)

  TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()A30-meter-tallmatryoshkadoll,deemedthelargestofitskindworldwide,hasbecomeamajorattractioninManchuria,China,anditissurroundedby30exquisiteEastereggtryosh,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()VolunteerscleanwasteonbeachinDongshanCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/SongWeiwei)VolunteersfreefriesinSanya,southChinasHainanProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ChenWenwu)MembersofChinasAntarcticexpeditionputamicroplasticcollectorintothesea,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/BaiGuolong)CleanersclearthefloatingwasteinthefishbreedingraftsinHuangqiTownshipofLianjiangCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)ChinasmannedsubmersibleJiaolongispreparedtodiveintheYapTrenchinthewestPacific,June13,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiuShiping)PearlcultivatorstransfershellsatapearlcultivationfarminBeihaiCity,southChinasGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ZhangAilin)AlittlegirlstaysatacampinQingdaoHaichangPolarOceanParkinQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvince,May19,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AseaweedharvestboatsailsataseaweedfarminSanshaTownshipinXiapuCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong),2018showsthesceneryofXinyingmangrovenationalwetlandparkinsouthChina,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangEnyu)

  AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)BicyclecartsandbamboobirdcagesQianmenDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Inthe1990s,whiletravelingthroughBeijingtowardsouthwestChinaIwouldalwaysspendafewdaysincreasingmyknowledgeofthecity’“Qianmen-Dashilar”appearedinmydiarynotesfromthosedays—anareaIdiscoveredtobebustlingwithstreetlifewhileretainingmuchofthecapital,acafeoverlookingthemassiveZhengyangmenGatecomplex,Iatebreakfast,satatthewindowanddreamed—dreamsofBeijing,theareaIwasinanditsmanyfacetsandepisodeswithinthecity’,butthelocalnameWestHeyanStreet,orWestRiverbankStreet,(ArrowTower)isonthecity’,“FrontGate”oftheMingDynastywallsseparatingtheimperialgrandeurofthenorthfromthevibrant,,re,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)ItwassouthalongthatroutetheemperorswouldbecarriedtowardstheTempleofHeavenforritualceremoniesbutitwasalsothroughtheJianloupassagewaywhereofficialsandtheirfamilieswouldemergeintothebustlingareasofQianmenandDashilar,ascommerceandentertainmentwektoweroftheformerZhengyangmenRailwayStation—theoriginal“Beijingstation”,,andanelemen,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Nextdoor,onQianmenEastStreet,theBeijingPlanningExhib,andbeamazedatthehaphazardlenortharoundDongsi,XisiandZhonggulou,’snarrowestalley,Qianshior“moneymarket”Hutong,,with26mintsproducingcoppercoinsforthecity’,particularlyitswesternside,washometoseveralofChina’searlyfinancialhouses—indeed,walkalongWestHeyanStreetandthereareseverallargeEuropeanclassica,,,atthattime,fascinatingdiscoveriesthroughareasofmainlylow-riseresidentialandcommercialbuildings,includingthe“UndergroundCity”—amazeofanti-nuclearevacuationtunnelsthatwereopentovisitorsatthattime,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)How,itsfamed“TimeHonoredBrands”—shopsrenownedfortheirhats,silks,foodstuffs,’sfirstcinema,Daguanlou,,featuringasculptureofthefatherofChinesecinema,dong,,itsprestige,runningsouthfromQianmentoZhushikouWestStreet,datesfrom2008andwasmodified,DashilarWestStreetwaspedestrianizedintoacommerciallaneandhomeforlocalprodu(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Simplyleavingthemainbywaycanleadintoalleyslinedwi—therewouldbemanycol,DashilarisbeingseenbytravelguideslikeLonelyPlanetasbecominga”hip”’slocal-styleArtDecobuildingsbecomingcentersforcontemporaryart,erseasbackpackersandtravelers,peoplewhoprefertospendtimeinlocalareasfilleoundingrooftops,whilelookingdownonthevarietyofdomesticandWester’,studentsoftengohomebybicyclecarts,,Tan’erleadstonorth-runningYanshouStreet,shistory,andforaphotographer,aplacetoca(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TodaytheQianmen-DashilararearemainsasasmallenclavewithinthegreaterareaofBeijing,butitsmanysurviving,twisting,mindedmemoreofavillagewithinacity,ramswhileschoolchildrenplayedont,—thepeoplewhomakethisoneofthemostfascinatingpartsofoldBeijingtoexplore,andwhere(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)QianmenDajieandJianlouTower2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Remindersofthepast-formerhomesandformerfactorybuildingsineasternQianmen2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)RooftopsandtraditionalbuildingsofDashilarandQianmen2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Schoolisout!TanerHutong2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TheschoolrunTanerHutongDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)ThesecuritymanandvistortoDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TraditionalfoodsinDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)

PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)Asthe2018FIFAWorldCupapproaches,letsseehowgiantpandasinSWChinasSichuanarepreparingforthebigevent!PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)

  PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)Asthe2018FIFAWorldCupapproaches,letsseehowgiantpandasinSWChinasSichuanarepreparingforthebigevent!PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)

  HungHsiu-chu(front,C),formerchairwomanofKuomintanginTaiwan,leadsadelegationtopayhomagetodeceasedsoldiersoftheChineseExpeditionaryForcewhodiedwhilefightingtheJapanesearmyinWorldWarIIinMyanmar,atamartyrscemeteryinTengchongCounty,SouthwestChinasYunnanProvince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,formerchairwomanofKuomintanginTaiwan,leadsadelegationtopayhomagetodeceasedsoldiersoftheChineseExpeditionaryForcewhodiedwhilefightingtheJapanesearmyinWorldWarIIinMyanmar,atamartyrscemeteryinTengchongCounty,SouthwestChinasYunnanProvince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,formerchairwomanofKuomintanginTaiwan,leadsadelegationtopayhomagetodeceasedsoldiersoftheChineseExpeditionaryForcewhodiedwhilefightingtheJapanesearmyinWorldWarIIinMyanmar,atamartyrscemeteryinTengchongCounty,SouthwestChinasYunnanProvince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,formerchairwomanofKuomintanginTaiwan,leadsadelegationtopayhomagetodeceasedsoldiersoftheChineseExpeditionaryForcewhodiedwhilefightingtheJapanesearmyinWorldWarIIinMyanmar,atamartyrscemeteryinTengchongCounty,SouthwestChinasYunnanProvince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,theformerchairwomanoftheKuomintanginTaiwan,visitstheWesternYunnanWarofResistanceagainstJapaneseAggressionMemorialinTengchongCounty,Yunnanprovince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,theformerchairwomanoftheKuomintanginTaiwan,visitstheWesternYunnanWarofResistanceagainstJapaneseAggressionMemorialinTengchongCounty,Yunnanprovince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)

  ReportersgatherattheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersgatherattheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersgatherattheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersgatherattheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersgatherattheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)ReportersgatherattheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)ReportersgatherattheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)ReportersqueuetoentertheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiYang)ReportersgatherattheInternationalMediaCenterfortheDPRK-USAsummitatF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuZhen)

  AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei),2017showstwilightthroughtheSeventeenArchBridgeintheSummerPalaceinBeijing,capitalofChina.(Xinhua/LiuXianguo)China,700activitieswillbeheldacrossChinatocelebratethisyearsculturalandnaturalheritageday,,whichwasestablishedtosafegstakealookat20culturalheritagesitesinChina,,originallynamedQingyiYuan,ortheGardenofClearRipples,wasanimperialgardenconstructedin1750byEmperorQianlonginabidtocelebratehismother,emperorsandempressesspenttheirleisuretimethere,eselandscapegardendesign,,capitalofsouthwestChinasTibetAutonomousRegion,,2018,togreettheSpringFestivalandTibetanNewYear.(Xinhua/Chogo),LhasaThePotalaPalace,winterpalaceoftheDalaiLama,hassymbolizedTibetanBuddhismanditscen,madeupoftheWhiteandRedPalaceswiththeirancillarybuildings,isbuiltonRedMountaininthecenterofLhasaValley,atanaltitudeof3,,JokhangTempleMonasteryandNorbulingkawereaddedtothelistrespectivelyin1994,,2018showsthesnowsceneryofWestLakeinHangzhou,eastChinaZhejiangProvince,,2018.(Xinhua/HuangZongzhi),,WestLakeCulturalLandscapeofHangzhouhasinspiredfamouspoets,,pagodas,pavilions,gardensandornamentaltrees,,2018showsseaofcloudsafterrainfallatHuangyaguansectionoftheGreatWallinTianjin,northChina.(Xinhua/YangYushan),theGreatWallwindsupanddownacrossdeserts,grasslands,mountainsandplateaus,,horsetracks,watchtowers,andsheltersonthewall,,000years,,itisstilloneofthemostappealingattractionsallaroundt,oneofthegreatestwondersoftheworld,,northwestChinasGansuProvince,,2016.(Photo/Xinhua),Gansuprovince,theMogaocaves,alsoknownastheThousand-BuddhaCaves,aretheworldslargest,mostrichlyendowed,,atthecrossroadsoftradeaswellasreligious,,thecarvingofthecavesstartedin366ADandcontinuedforabout1,,housingabout45,000squaremetersofmuralsandmorethan2,000paintedsculptures,,wi(Photo/Xinhua)sYuanDynastyinChina,slegendarycapitalcity,designedbytheMongolrulersChineseadvisor,LiuBingzhong,,includingtemples,palaces,tombs,nomadicencampmentsandtheTiefangangCanal,,,:/FengJun):anImperialSacrificialAltarinBeijingLocatedinthesouthernpartofBeijing,theTempleofHeavenisamagnificentcomplexoffirs,andisthelargestoneinBeijingamongseveralroyalaltarstoHeaven,Earth,theSun,,SoutheastChinasFujianprovince,onDec9,2016.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WangDongming)e15thand20thcenturiesover120kilometersinthesouth-westofFujianprovince,irfunctionexe,,efilm,resembling"scarfs"and"dresses",aspartoftheirrestorationintheEmperorQinshihuangsMausoleumSiteMuseuminXian,Shaanxiprovince,Feb23,2015.(Photo/CFP)ntainingterracottawarriorsandhorsesarelocatedinLintongcounty,nearXi’ancity,,,themausoleumislaidoutinlinewiththedimensionsofXianyang,,,,ridianGate(WuMen)ofthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,April17,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)ForbiddenCity,locatedinthecenterofBeijing,,,,(anareaenclosedbyfourpoles).In1924,theimperialfamilyoftheQingDynastywasremovedfromtheForbiddenCity,age,nearMountHuangshan,Anhuiprovince,inMay.(Photo:ChinaDaily/WangHao),HuangshancityinsouthAnhuiprovince,thetwotraditionalvillagesXidiandHongcunarearchitecturalcomplexes,,landscape,architecturalform,decorationandconstructiontechniquesallretaint,northChinasShanxiProvince,April22,,listedasaUNESCOWorldCulturalHeritagesitein2001,willwitnessatourismpeakastheMayDayholidayiscoming.(Photo:Xinhua/YanYan),some16kmwestofDatongcity,Shanxiprovince,theYungangGrottoeswerebuiltagainstthemountainandextendaboutonekm(),000statueswithinacarvedareaof18,000squaremeters,YungangGrottoesrepresenttheoutstandin,withtheirstrictunityoflayoutanddesign,coPoliticalPartyForumvisitLiuyuanorLingeringGardeninSuzhou,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,April22,2013.(Xinhua/ShenPeng),whichseekstorecreateminiaturenaturallandscapes,isnotillustratedanybetterthanintheninegardensinthehistoriccityofSuzhou,’,2017showstheviewofChengdesummerresortinnorthChinasHebeiProvince.(Xinhua/LiuMancang),ChengdeIntermsofthegenerallayout,architecturalstyles,constructiontechniques,decorationdetailsandgardenlandscape,theMountainResort,avastcomplexofpalacesandadministrativeandceremonialbuildingsbuiltbetween1703and1792,representsthebroadexchangeandconvergencebetweenHancultureandtheethniccultures-Confucianism,BuddhismandTaoism-andthearchitecturalstylesbetweenChina,theMountainResorthastemplesofmanyarchitecturalstylesandimperialgardensblendeffortlesslyintoalandscapeoflakes,,,centralChinasHenanProvince,April17,(Xinhua/ZhuXiang)e(618-907).Located13kmsouthofLuoyang,Henanprovince,theLongmenGrottoesareconcentratedontheeastandwestcliffsoftheYishuiRiver,,duringtheNorthernWeiDynasty,Grottoes,liketheTwentyGemsofLongmenCalligraphyandZhuSuiliang’sstonetablets,,madein641inhonorofthemotherofthefourthsonofEmperorTaizong,,,LushanMountainisoneofthemostrenownedmountainsandtourismresortsinthecountry.(Photo/ShanghaiDaily),LushanMountainisoneofChina’,whichwasinscribedontheWorldHeritageListin1996,i,LushanisthebirthplaceofChineselandscapepoetry,plus,thefamousLushanPlenumrepresentsitsroleinChina’,,southwestChinasYunnanProvince,,SCOin1997.(Photo:Xinhua/YangZongyou),lyingontheLijiangplainatanelevationof2,400metersinsouthwestYunnanprovinceofChina,alandstrategifelementsfromseveralcultures,anditsancientwater-supplysy,WudangMountain,alsoknownasTaiheMountain,isbothafamousscenicspotandaholysiteofTaoism,Chinasindigenousreligion.(Photo/)anjiangkouincentralHubeiprovince,theWudangMountainsarehometoafamouscomplexofancientpalaces,periodofnearly1,,anannualeventputonbythespecialadministrativeregionsgovernment,sonSundaynight,(Photo:Xinhua/ZhangJinjia)’straditionalChinesedesign,itstandswitnesst’smissionaryroleintheFarEastwhilealso,formingthemostuniqueblendofculturalheritageexistinginChina’,,clairaudienceandtheJadeEmperorintheDazuRockCarvingsinChongqingmunicipality.(Photo/TheofficialWechataccountofDazuRockCarvings),,’,50,000statuesand100,000inscribedwithChinesecharacter,1999.

  Anindependentformationof55femalehonorguardsofthePeoplesLibera,whousedtostandwiththemalehonorguardssincetheirdebutin2014,areappearingasanindependentformationforthefirsttime.(Photo/Xinhua)Anindependentformationof55femalehonorguardsofthePeoplesLibera,whousedtostandwiththemalehonorguardssincetheirdebutin2014,areappearingasanindependentformationforthefirsttime.(Photo/Xinhua)Anindependentformationof55femalehonorguardsofthePeoplesLibera,whousedtostandwiththemalehonorguardssincetheirdebutin2014,areappearingasanindependentformationforthefirsttime.(Photo/Xinhua)Anindependentformationof55femalehonorguardsofthePeoplesLibera,whousedtostandwiththemalehonorguardssincetheirdebutin2014,areappearingasanindependentformationforthefirsttime.(Photo/Xinhua)

  Thislow-angleself-portraitofNASAsCuriosityMarsrovershowsthevehicleatthesitefromwhichitreacheddowntodrillintoarocktargetcalled"Buckskin"onlowerMountSharp.(Photo/Agencies)NASA’sCuriosityroverhasfoundnewevidencepreservedinrocksonMarsthatsuggeststheplanetcouldhavesupportedancientlife,aswellasnewevidenceintheMart,thesefindingsareagoodsignforfuturemissionsexploringtheplanet’“tough”organicmoleculesinthree-billion-year-oldsedimentaryrocksnearthesurface,aswellasseasonalvariationsinthelevelsofm,andalsomayincludeoxygen,,organicmoleculesalsocanbecreatedbynon-biologicalprocessesandarenotnecessarilyindicatorsoflife.“Withthesenewfindings,Marsistellingustostaythecourseandkeepsearchingforevidenceoflife,”saidThomasZurbuchen,associateadministratorfortheScienceMissionDirectorateatNASAHeadquarters,inWashington.“I’mconfidentthatourongoingandplannedmissionswillunlockevenmorebreathtakingdiscoveriesontheRedPlanet.”Thisself-portraitofNASAsCuriosityMarsroverobtainedFebruary4,2018showsthevehicleonVeraRubinRidge,whichitsbeeninvestigatingforthepastseveralmonths,directlybehindtheroveristhestartofaclaywherenorthisontheleftandwestisontheright,withGaleCratersrimonthehorizonofbothedges.-’sCuriosityroverhasfoundnewevidencepreservedinrocksonMarsthatsuggeststheplanetcouldhavesupportedancientlife,aswellasnewevidenceintheMart,thesefindingsareagoodsignforfuturemissionsexploringtheplanet’“tough”organicmoleculesinthree-billion-year-oldsedimentaryrocksnearthesurface,aswellasseasonalvariationsinthelevelsofm,andalsomayincludeoxygen,,organicmoleculesalsocanbecreatedbynon-biologicalprocessesandarenotnecessarilyindicatorsoflife.“Withthesenewfindings,Marsistellingustostaythecourseandkeepsearchingforevidenceoflife,”saidThomasZurbuchen,associateadministratorfortheScienceMissionDirectorateatNASAHeadquarters,inWashington.“I’mconfidentthatourongoingandplannedmissionswillunlockevenmorebreathtakingdiscoveriesontheRedPlanet.”

  CraftswomanLiWenlingshowsherpaper-cuttingworksatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsafolkmusicperformanceatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsateaartshowatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)CraftsmanMuXujianshowsdoughsculpturemakingtojournalistsatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)CraftsmanMuXujianmakesdoughsculpturesatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AstaffmemberrepairsaculturalrelicatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang(C),thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,poseswithvolunteersattheopeningofitsrestorationhospitaltothepublicinBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)StaffmembersrepairculturalrelicsatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)AvolunteertalkstovisitorsaboutculturalrelicsrestorationatahospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)AstaffmemberrepairsaculturalrelicatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang,thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,meetswithvisitorstoarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang,thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,meetswithvisitorstoarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)

  

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瓷绘《西厢记》比刊本更早传入欧洲

时间:2019-07-23 00:15  来源:新快报

■清康熙十二年青花釉里红“康熙癸丑中和堂制”款 西厢记·佛殿奇逢 盘

■清康熙青花 西厢记·寺警 宽沿碗

■清康熙青花 西厢记·赖婚 宽沿碗

■清康熙十一年(壬子)中和堂款青花釉里红 西厢记·传简 盘

■清顺治青花五彩 长亭送别 花觚

■清康熙中期青花 西厢记·妆台报喜 故事图瓶
AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)GuardsworkattheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)PolicecarsareseenneartheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)

17世纪上半叶欧洲人就已从瓷器上认识了这个中国爱情故事

17世纪上半叶,景德镇特意烧制的、以《西厢记》为题材的青花盘和瓶在运到英国后大受欢迎,自此欧洲人就已从瓷器上认识到了这个中国特色的情爱故事。事实上,据有关资料表明,目前能够见到的最早绘有《西厢记》图案的瓷器于明崇祯朝就有烧造,而其发展至康熙时期,更是达到了其历史上的巅峰。

■收藏周刊记者 梁志钦 实习生 梁婉莹

西厢记纹饰 主要出现于民窑瓷器上

据有关资料记载,在17世纪上半叶,英国曾向中国订制一批瓷器,并且对瓷器上的绘画提出了明确的要求,希望以人物仕女为主,有故事情节者更佳。于是,景德镇特意烧制了《西厢记》中以张君瑞、崔莺莺爱情故事为题材的青花盘和瓶,运到英国后大受欢迎。

当时,《西厢记》故事已被定型,据有关学者猜测,景德镇的工艺美术家很有可能就是以当时各种《西厢记》刊本上的插图为蓝本来绘制瓷器上的图画。

有趣的是,在相关研究中表明,《西厢记》故事已经出现于瓷器上并销往海外的时候,明刊本《西厢记》都尚未流传到欧洲,但尽管如此,欧洲人早已从青花瓷器的图案上接受并欣赏到《西厢记》的故事情节和人物形象了。可以说,这对于《西厢记》的刊本传入欧洲以及英译、德译、法译起了媒介和诱导作用。

但是,《西厢记》纹饰更多只是出现于民窑瓷器上,在明清两代的官窑瓷器基本看不到这样的纹饰。对于上层统治阶级来说,一向认为戏曲、小说不登大雅之堂,《西厢记》更被视为诲淫之作,当然绝不可能让工匠们用《西厢记》图来装饰宫廷和官府使用的器物。

康熙时此类纹饰在数量质量上

达到巅峰

顺治时期,瓷绘《西厢记》图就很流行。有研究学者认为,到了康熙时期,瓷绘《西厢记》纹饰无论从数量上还是质量上都达到了历史上的巅峰,各种碗、盘、杯、瓶、罐、笔筒等都常见绘有《西厢记》图。

在这一时期,《西厢记》中的人物和背景开始逐渐跳脱于刊本《西厢记》中的版画插图模样,并且随着瓷器工艺的发展,康熙时期也一改晚明时期主要以青花为主的瓷绘《西厢记》,青花、五彩两种形式齐驱并驾。

此外,在画面表达上,即使描绘同一情节,不同器物上所绘画面也少有雷同。例如盘、碟主要以描绘单幅《西厢记》图为主,碗、瓶等立件主要描绘《西厢记》不同场面图案,甚至还有同一套器物上每一件描绘《西厢记》一个场景,件件不同,合成一套。但无论是单幅画还是组画,大多都与《西厢记》折子戏的名目相应。

据研究显示,瓷上所绘西厢故事图案的情节最常绘的便是那些最受欢迎、最具舞台表现力、画面生动的情节,如《佛殿奇逢》《墙角联吟》《白马解围》《红娘请宴》《月下听琴》《乘夜逾墙》《月下佳期》《长亭送别》《草桥惊梦》等。

不过到了雍正时期,有关瓷绘《西厢记》的绘画水平开始有所下降,在制作形式上仍沿袭前朝,多以粉彩为主,颜色鲜艳。据相关研究表明,目前,所见外销欧洲的《西厢记》纹饰瓷器多为康熙、雍正两朝烧制,以盘类居多,有些直径小至数寸、大至50厘米以上。

一直发展至于乾隆时期,瓷器上的《西厢记》故事开始急剧减少。这主要是由于,乾隆当政以后,文禁趋严,《西厢记》也被列入禁书之列,加之此时“文字狱”盛行,稍有违碍,便会惨遭不测,窑厂画工们自然不敢轻易犯禁,因此今天很少见到乾隆朝瓷器上的《西厢记》图。

直到嘉庆以后,管制渐松,瓷绘《西厢记》才稍稍增多,然而到了这一时候,瓷绘已不成气候,质量也大为下降,实在是难及康熙、雍正时的辉煌了。

《西厢记》故事画面赏析

佛殿奇逢

清康熙十二年青花釉里红“康熙癸丑中和堂制”款《西厢记·佛殿奇逢》图盘,高5.5厘米,口径27厘米,足径16厘米,巴特勒家族藏。盘口沿略外撇,弧壁,口沿施釉。双圈足,底部施釉双圈八字“康熙癸丑中和堂制”款。画面中张生与法聪站在佛殿台阶上,张生站在法聪身后悄悄观看莺莺,莺莺对此虽有察觉,却佯装不知,只是右手拈花,左手持扇,扭身专注地听红娘说话。

寺警

清康熙青花《西厢记·寺警》图宽沿碗,直径21厘米,宽沿敞口,圈足。外壁以青花绘张君瑞执笔,正准备修书,使僧惠明遗函友人白马将军杜确,请求引兵解围的情景。画面中张君瑞执笔待写,而惠明已伸出双手准备接信了,此碗瓷画将事态的紧迫和惠明和尚侠胆急躁的性格表现得十分生动。

赖婚

清康熙青花《西厢记·赖婚》故事图宽沿碗,直径21厘米,宽沿敞口,圈足。外壁以青花绘莺莺在崔夫人督促下给张生行礼的场面。青花碗所绘正面施礼的青年女子是莺莺,身旁举托盘的青年女子是红娘,后面神情冷漠的老年女子是崔夫人,侧身还礼的男子是张君瑞。此碗瓷画表现的是由欢喜变悲情的场面。

传简

清康熙十一年(壬子)中和堂款青花釉里红《西厢记·传简》故事图盘,高5.5厘米,口径27厘米,足径16厘米,巴特勒家族收藏。盘撇口,弧壁,口沿有釉。双圈足较深,底部双圈“康熙壬子中和堂制”八字款。盘内画面描写的是红娘传简,侧面有一书童煮茶伺候。桌前伏案聆听者为张生,红娘执扇坐在桌侧椅子上同张生讲话。盘内主纹以青花绘成,花卉部分则以釉里红表现。

长亭送别

清顺治青花五彩《西厢记·长亭送别》图花觚,高44.8厘米,口径21.3厘米,底径14.4厘米,上海博物馆藏。敞口,直腹平底。花觚以青花五彩绘莺莺在长亭送张生入京考试的离别场面。

妆台报喜

清康熙中期青花《西厢记·妆台报喜》故事图瓶,高42.9厘米,口径12厘米,底径14厘米,上海博物馆藏。图中以青花绘画第五本第一折情节,张生赴京考中状元,派书童向莺莺报喜,画面中莺莺手捧喜报阅读,喜悦之情溢于言表,身旁的红娘也很高兴,琴童站立一旁正滔滔讲述张君瑞夸官之事。

(本文部分内容据陈行一《雍正粉彩<西厢记>人物故事套杯鉴赏》,刘明杉《西厢多少事尽在古瓷中》,袁啸波《古瓷上的<西厢记>》,李绍斌《瓷上绘画<西厢记>》)

编 辑:赵静明
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